Ski Jumping
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Ski jumping

Norway is the world’s largest ski jumping hill.
Highest governing body International Ski Federation
First played 1808
Norway
Characteristics
Team members Individual or groups
Olympic Since the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924

Ski jumping facility in Einsiedeln, Switzerland

The Ski Jumping Complex in Turin.

Matti Nykänen ski jumping hill (K100) and a smaller K64 hill in Jyväskylä, Finland.

Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down a take-off ramp, jump and attempt to land as far as possible down the hill below. In addition to the length of the jump, judges give points for style. The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long (260 to 275 centimetres (100 to 108 in)). Ski jumping is predominantly a inrun, plastic on the landing hill.

Contents

[edit] History

True ski jumping originated in Morgedal, Norway. Olaf Rye, a Norwegian lieutenant, was the first known ski jumper. In 1809, he launched himself 9.5 meters in the air in front of an audience of other soldiers. By 1862, ski jumpers were tackling much larger jumps and traveling longer. Norway’s Sondre Norheim jumped 30 meters over a rock without the benefit of poles. His record stood for three decades. The first proper competition was held in Trysil. The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 metres.[1] The annual event was moved to Holmenkollen from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues.

According to the International Olympic Committee’s site[2]:

Ski jumping has been part of the Olympic Winter Games since the first Games in Chamonix Mont-Blanc in 1924. The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.

[edit] Competition

Today, FIS Ski Jumping World Cup are held on three types of hills:

Normal hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately 80–100 metres (260–330 ft). Distances of up to and over 110 metres (360 ft) can be reached.
Large hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately 120–130 metres (390–430 ft). Distances of over 145 metres (476 ft) can be obtained on the larger hills. Both individual and team competitions are run on these hills.
Ski-flying competitions
for which the calculation line is found at 185 metres (607 ft). The Ski Flying World Record of 246.5 metres (809 ft) is held by Vikersundbakken, Norway in February 2011.

Amateur and junior competitions are held on smaller hills.

Individual Olympic competition consists of a training jump and two scored jumps. The team event consists of four members of the same nation, who each jump twice.

Ski jumping is one of the two elements of the Nordic combined sport.

[edit] Summer jumping

Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on a porcelain track and plastic grass combined with water. There are also many competitions during the summer. The World Cup (Summer Grand Prix) often includes those hills:

Continental Cup also have summer competitions and even more than the World Cup.

[edit] Women’s ski jumping

On 26 May 2006, the International Ski Federation decided to allow women to ski jump at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships in Liberec, Czech Republic and then to have a team event for women at the 2011 world championships. FIS also decided to submit a proposal to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to allow women to compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.[3]

On 28 November 2006, the proposal for a women’s ski jumping event was rejected by the Executive Board of the IOC. The reason for the rejection cited the low number of athletes as well as few participating countries in the sport. The Executive Board noted that women’s ski jumping has yet to be fully established internationally.[5]

It has been noted that while the number of women in ski jumping is not insignificant, the field has a much wider spread in terms of talent, in that the top men are all of a similar level of strength competitively, while the women are more varied, even in the top tiers.[6]

A group of 15 competitive female ski jumpers filed a suit against the [10]

On April 6, 2011 the International Olympic Committee officially accepted women ski jumping into the official Olympic program for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.[11]

[edit] Mixed Team

On June 16, 2012 a historic first ever world premiere of Mixed Team ski jumping event performing men and women together was held at Mostec[14]

On August 14, 2012 first ever full four members (two men and two women) ski jumping Mixed Team, a first ever Mixed Team FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping event and first ever on plastic was held in Courchevel, France. Competition was held on normal La Praz olympic HS96 hill. The first full four member Mixed Team and first ever Grand Prix mixed team winner in history was team of Japan.

On November 23, 2012 first historic FIS World Cup Mixed Team event took place in Lysgårdsbakken olympic HS100 hill. Each national mixed team consisted of four ski jumpers, two men and two women. The first World Cup mixed team winner was team of Norway.

[edit] Records

All Pre-World Cup, Olympic Games, World Championships & World Cup events are included. (As of March 18, 2011)

Category Ski Jumper Record Date/Year
Olympic Games (1924–2010)
most individual victories Simon Ammann 4 2002–2010
all medals Matti Nykänen 5 1984–1988
most team victories Finland Team 2 1988–1992
Germany Team 2 1994–2002
Austria Team 2 2006–2010
most team medals Austria Team 5 1992–2010
youngest winner individual (Albertville) Toni Nieminen 16 y, 261 d 1992
oldest winner individual (Lillehammer) Jens Weißflog 29 y, 214 d 1994
by No. of Olympic appearances Noriaki Kasai 6 1992–2010
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships (1925–2011)
most individual victories Adam Małysz 4 2001–2007
most individual medals Adam Małysz 6 2001–2011
all medals Janne Ahonen 10 1995–2005
Martin Schmitt 10 1997–2011
most team victories Austria Team 8 1984–2011
most team medals Austria Team 14 1984–2011
youngest winner individual (Thunder Bay) Tommy Ingebrigtsen 17 y, 222 d 1995
oldest winner individual (Liberec) Andreas Küttel 29 y, 308 d 2009
by No. of Championships appearances Noriaki Kasai 10 1989–2009
FIS Ski-Flying World Championships (1972–2010)
most individual victories Walter Steiner 2 1972–1977
Sven Hannawald 2 2000–2002
Roar Ljøkelsøy 2 2004–2006
most individual medals Matti Nykänen 5 1983–1990
all medals Janne Ahonen 7 1996–2008
most team victories Norway Team 2 2004–2006
Austria Team 2 2008–2010
most team medals Norway Team 4 2004–2010
Finland Team 4 2004–2010
youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf) Gregor Schlierenzauer 18 y, 47 d 2008
oldest winner individual (Vikersund) Robert Kranjec 30 y, 224 days 2012
by No. of Championships appearances Janne Ahonen 9 1994–2010
Four Hills Tournament (1952–2011)
most overall victories Janne Ahonen 5 1999–2008
most individual victories Jens Weißflog 10 1983–1996
youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf) Toni Nieminen 16 y, 212 d 29 December 1991
oldest winner individual (Bischofshofen) Jens Weißflog 31 y, 169 d 6 January 1996
youngest winner overall Toni Nieminen 16 y, 220 d 1991–92
oldest winner overall Jens Weißflog 31 y, 169 d 1995–96
World Cup (1979–2011)
most overall wins Matti Nykänen 4 1983–1988
Adam Małysz 4 2001–2007
most individual victories Matti Nykänen 46 1981–1989
most individual podiums Janne Ahonen 108 1993–2010
most individual Top 10 results Janne Ahonen 245 1993–2011
most team victories Austria team 23 1990–2011
most team medals Austria team 45 1990–2011
most individual performances Noriaki Kasai 409 1989-active
most team performances Noriaki Kasai 42 1990-active
all performances Noriaki Kasai 451 1989-active
most seasons Noriaki Kasai 22 1989-active
most ski-flying individual victories Gregor Schlierenzauer 10 2006-active
youngest winner individual (Lahti) Steve Collins 15 y, 362 d 9 March 1980
oldest winner individual (Kuopio) Takanobu Okabe 38 y, 135 d 10 March 2009
youngest winner overall Toni Nieminen 16 y, 303 d 1991-92
oldest winner overall Adam Małysz 29 y, 112 d 2006-07
oldest World Cup performance jumper Takanobu Okabe 41 y, 95 d 1989-2012
most wins in one season individual Gregor Schlierenzauer 13 2008-09
most points in one season individual Gregor Schlierenzauer 2083 (points) 2008-09
Other records (all times)
first jump over 100m (Planica) Sepp Bradl 101m 1936
first jump over 200m (Planica) Andreas Goldberger (fall, invalid) 202m* 1994
Toni Nieminen (official) 203m 1994
most jumps over 200m Robert Kranjec 131 1998–active
world record (Vikersund) Johan Remen Evensen 246.5m 2011
first World Cup individual event Cortina d’Ampezzo December 1979
first World Cup team event Lahti March 1990

[edit] Scoring

The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length and wind conditions.

Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point or “critical point”) which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers not landing on the K Line receive or lose points for every metre (3 ft) they miss the mark by, depending on if they surpass it or fall short, respectively. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall). The value of a metre is determined from the size of the hill. The K point is the point on the hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off.

In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K-120 jump – with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each – and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points.

In January 2010, a new scoring system was introduced to compensate for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone and thus unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun length is adjusted. An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus points for the actual wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores from the jump itself.

In the individual event, the scores from each skier’s two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.

[edit] Rules

Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.[15]

[edit] Technique

The ski jump is divided into four separate sections; 1) In-run, 2) Take-off (jump), 3) Flight and 4) Landing. In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximise the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.

Using the modern Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.

Previous techniques first included the Windisch technique were the standard for ski jumping from the 1950s.

Until the mid 1970s, the Ski jumper would come down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new in-run technique of directing the arms backwards in a more aerodynamic position.

The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation will lead to the deduction of style marks (points).

[edit] Popularity

Ski jumping is popular among spectators and TV audiences in Scandinavia and Central Europe. Almost all world-class ski jumpers come from those regions or from Japan. Traditionally, the strongest countries are Finland, Norway, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Slovenia, and Japan. However, there have always been successful ski jumpers from other countries as well (see list below). The Bavaria, Germany and Austria around New Year’s, is very popular.

There have been attempts to spread the popularity of the sport by finding ways by which the construction and upkeep of practicing and competition venues can be made easier. These include plastic fake snow to provide a slippery surface even during the summer time and in locations where snow is a rare occurrence.

[edit] Ski flying

Ski jumping originates from Norway but the homeland of ski flying is Slovenia. World’s first ski flying hill was in Planica. In 1936 the FIS started to regulate the construction of the jumping hills and issued international standards. Back then it was forbidden to build hills on which jumps longer than 80 meters are possible. Nevertheless the first ever skiflying hill was built in Planica (SLO) but It took several more years until competitions on this hill were approved by the International Federation.[citation needed]

[edit] List of ski flying hills

Hill name Location Opened K-point Hill size Hill record
Vikersundbakken Norway 1936 K-195 HS 225 246.5 metres (809 ft)
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek Slovenia 1969 K-185 HS 215 239.0 metres (784.1 ft)
Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze Germany 1950 K-185 HS 213 225.5 metres (740 ft)
Kulm Austria 1950 K-185 HS 200 215.5 metres (707 ft)
Čerťák Czech Republic 1979 K-185 HS 205 214.5 metres (704 ft)
Copper Peak United States 1970 K-170 HS 180 158.0 metres (518.4 ft)

Ski Flying is an extreme version of ski jumping. The events take place in big hills with a K-spot of at least 185 metres (607 ft). The difference between ski flying and “big hill” ski jumping is subtle, but ski flying puts more focus on the ability to float or glide through the air, and less on pure jumping ability. Copper Peak’s reprofiling landing zone is already completed.

[edit] Ski flying and Sky diving

Ski Flyers rely on the same aerodynamics body positions (i.e. skydivers. As gear technology and flight techniques improved in the early 1970s, both sports seem to have developed these aerodynamically stable “body positions”. Depending on the gear being used, the glide ratios for the “tracking” and “delta” body positions for both sports can be as much as 2:1, meaning the ski jumper or skydiver can attain as much as 2 metres of travel over ground for every 1 metre of altitude they drop. Generally, skydivers “fly” through the air twice as fast as ski jumpers. Participants in both sports call themselves “jumpers.”

Nonetheless, most of the top competitors in “regular” ski jumping tend to be among the best in ski flying competitions as well. However, some jumpers, such as Robert Kranjec are regarded as ski flying specialists.

The “father” of ski flying is Janez Gorišek, an engineer, sportsman and enthusiastic sport-promoter who designed the Planica ski-jump. There are five ski flying hills in the world today: Vikersundbakken in Vikersund, Norway; Oberstdorf, Germany; Kulm Austria; Letalnica, Planica, Slovenia; and Harrachov, Czech Republic. A sixth hill, Copper Peak in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is currently disused, although there are plans to rebuild it to FIS standards.[16] There are plans for more ski flying hills, even for an indoor ski flying hill in Ylitornio, Finland. The biggest hill is Vikersundbakken in Vikersund.

It is possible to fly more than 200 metres (660 ft) in all the ski flying hills, and the current World Record is 246.5 metres (809 ft), set by Norwegian Johan Remen Evensen at Vikersund in 2011.

The Ski flying World Championships started in 1972 and have been held on a mainly biennial basis, although there have been several occasions where events were held annually. The 2010 FIS World Championships in skiflying were organised in Planica, and in 2012 the FIS World Championships will take place in Vikersund, Norway.

1998 Ski flying World Championships individual day event wins in two series also counted as an individual World Cup win.

[edit] Official jumps over 200m

  • As of 18 March 2012.
Rank Ski Jumper #
1.  Robert Kranjec (SLO) 131
2.  Martin Koch (AUT) 121
3.  Adam Małysz (POL) 114
 Bjørn Einar Romøren (NOR) 114
5.  Matti Hautamäki (FIN) 108
 Thomas Morgenstern (AUT) 108
 Simon Ammann (SUI) 99
 Noriaki Kasai (JPN) 85
 Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT) 80
  •   retired ski jumper

[edit] Notable ski jumpers

The most notable ski jumpers may be considered those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps. In addition Eddie the Eagle Edwards should be noted for his hilarious approach to ski jumping and also for his comical appearance.

So far only 5 jumpers are recorded to have achieved this:

Name Date Location Competition Rank
Anton Innauer 7 March 1976[17] Oberstdorf Ski flying (International ski flying weeks) 1
Kazuyoshi Funaki 15 February 1998[18] Nagano Olympic Winter Games, large hill, second jump 1
Sven Hannawald 8 February 2003[19] Willingen Worldcup competition, large hill, first jump 1
Hideharu Miyahira 8 February 2003[19] Willingen Worldcup competition, large hill, second jump 6
Wolfgang Loitzl 6 January 2009[20] Bischofshofen Four Hills Jumping, large hill, first jump 1

Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed four times 20 (plus another 19,5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition.

Other notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:

[edit] Male

The view from the top of the ski jump in 2002 Winter Olympics

Ski jumping facility in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (outrun)

Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (inrun)

Currently active
Country Flag Name
Austria Martin Koch
Andreas Kofler
David Zauner
Manuel Fettner
Gregor Schlierenzauer
Thomas Morgenstern
Wolfgang Loitzl
Czech Republic Jakub Janda
Roman Koudelka
Jan Matura
Antonín Hájek
Lukáš Hlava
Finland Janne Happonen
Lauri Asikainen
Ville Larinto
Anssi Koivuranta
Germany Michael Neumayer
Martin Schmitt
Richard Freitag
Andreas Wank
Severin Freund
Italy Sebastian Colloredo
Andrea Morassi
Roberto Dellasega
Alessio de Crignis
Japan Noriaki Kasai
Junshiro Kobayashi
Taku Takeuchi
Daiki Ito
Shōhei Tochimoto
Korea Choi Heung-Chul
Choi Yong-Jik
Kim Hyun-Ki
Kang Chil-Gu
Norway Tom Hilde
Vegard-Haukø Sklett
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Anders Bardal
Ole Marius Ingvaldsen
Anders Fannemel
Rune Velta
Poland Kamil Stoch
Stefan Hula
Krzysztof Miętus
Marcin Bachleda
Maciej Kot
Dawid Kubacki
Łukasz Rutkowski
Rafał Śliż
Slovenia Robert Kranjec
Jernej Damjan
Peter Prevc
Jure Šinkovec
Jurij Tepeš
Dejan Judež
Switzerland Simon Ammann
Marco Grigoli
Russia Denis Kornilov
Dimitry Vassiliev
Anton Kalinitschenko
France Emmanuel Chedal
USA Nicholas Alexander
Peter Frenette
Bulgaria Vladimir Zografski
Canada Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes

[edit] Female

[edit] Unsuccessful

[edit] Important venues

The second largest jump in the world, Letalnica Bratov Gorišek, in Planica, Slovenia

Ski jumping World Cup
Four Hills Tournament
Nordic Tournament

[edit] National records

GDR stamp – Memorial for the Skijumper

Rank Nation Record holder Length Venue Year Skis
1.  Norway Johan Remen Evensen 246.5 metres (809 ft) Vikersund 2011 Elan
2.  Slovenia Robert Kranjec 244 metres (801 ft) Vikersund 2012 Fischer
3.  Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer 243.5 metres (799 ft) Vikersund 2011 Fischer
4.  Finland Janne Happonen 240 metres (790 ft) Vikersund 2011 Fischer
 Japan Daiki Ito 240 metres (790 ft) Vikersund 2012 Fischer
6.  Switzerland Simon Ammann 238.5 metres (782 ft) Vikersund 2011 Fischer
7.  Czech Republic Antonín Hájek 236 metres (774 ft) Planica 2010 Fischer
8.  Poland Piotr Żyła 232.5 metres (763 ft) Vikersund 2012 Fischer
9.  Russia Denis Kornilov 232 metres (761 ft) Vikersund 2012 Fischer
10.  Germany Richard Freitag 230 metres (750 ft) Vikersund 2012 Fischer
11.  France Vincent Descombes Sevoie 225 metres (738 ft) Vikersund 2012 Fischer
12.  United States Alan Alborn 221.5 metres (727 ft) Planica 2002 Fischer
13.  Italy Andrea Morassi 216.5 metres (710 ft) Planica 2012 Elan
14.  Sweden Isak Grimholm 207.5 metres (681 ft) Planica 2007 Elan
 South Korea Choi Heung-Chul 207.5 metres (681 ft) Planica 2008 Fischer
16.  Estonia Kaarel Nurmsalu 204 metres (669 ft) Vikersund 2012 Fischer
17.  Belarus Petr Chaadaev 197.5 metres (648 ft) Kulm 2006 Rossignol
18.  Kazakhstan Radik Zhaparov 196.5 metres (645 ft) Planica 2007 Fischer
19.  Slovakia Martin Mesik 195.5 metres (641 ft) Kulm 2006 Elan
20.  Canada Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes 194 metres (636 ft) Vikersund 2012 Fischer
21.  Ukraine Vitaliy Shumbarets 189.5 metres (622 ft) Planica 2009 Elan
22.  Bulgaria Petar Fartunov 175 metres (574 ft) Planica 2009
23.  Netherlands Christoph Kreuzer 162 metres (531 ft) Planica 2002
24.  Hungary Gabor Geller 139 metres (456 ft) Harrachov 1980
25.  Turkey Faik Yuksel 138 metres (453 ft)
26.  Kyrgyzstan Dmitry Chvykov 122 metres (400 ft)
27.  Romania Florin Spulber 118 metres (387 ft) Borșa 1999
28.  China Tian Zhandong 118 metres (387 ft)
29.  United Kingdom Glynn Pedersen 113.5 metres (372 ft) Salt Lake City 2002
30.  Georgia Kakhaber Tsakadze 105 metres (344 ft)
31.  Croatia Josip Šporer 102 metres (335 ft) Planica 1940’s
32.  Moldova Filipciuc Ivan 95 metres (312 ft) Borșa 2002 Fischer
33.  Wales Mark Wayne Evans 85.5 metres (281 ft)
34.  Argentina Ferdinand Gomez 78 metres (256 ft)
35.  Armenia Sarahn Czizkabika 49.5 metres (162 ft) Gibswil 2011
36.  Montenegro Bozo Cvorovic 46 metres (151 ft) Zabijak 1960’s
37.  Belgium [23] 35 metres (115 ft) Rückershausen 2012

[edit] Water ski jumping

The ski jump is performed on two long skis similar to those a beginner uses, with a specialized tailfin that is somewhat shorter and much wider (so it will support the weight of the skier when he is on the jump ramp). Skiers towed behind a boat at fixed speed, maneuver to achieve the maximum speed when hitting a ramp floating in the water, launching themselves into the air with the goal of traveling as far as possible before touching the water. Professional ski jumpers can travel up to 70 metres (230 ft). The skier must successfully land and retain control of the ski rope to be awarded the distance.

An extreme version of this sport named Ski Flying was promoted by Scot Ellis and Jim Cara, in which boat speeds and ramp heights are boosted because physics have proved that the standard 75 feet (23 m) line and traditional 35 miles per hour (56 km/h) boat speed is outrun by the skier and the pro skier was ahead of the boat, being held back by the line.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Oslo – Huseby (Ski Jumping Hill Archive)
  2. ^ “Ski Jumping”. International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Sports/All-Sports/Skiing/Ski-Jumping/.
  3. ^ “FIS MEDIA INFO: Decisions of the 45th International Ski Congress in Vilamoura/Algarve (POR)”. Fédération Internationale de Ski. 2006-05-26. http://www.fis-ski.com/uk/news/pressreleases/pressreleases2006/gacongressdecisions.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  4. ^ IOC approves skicross; rejects women’s ski jumping
  5. ^ “Rogge: Women jumpers would dilute Olympics medals”. CTV News. 2008-02-28. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20080228/ski_jumping_080227/20080228/. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  6. ^ Christa Case Bryant (2009-11-08). “Why women can’t ski jump in the Winter Olympics”. Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2009/1109/p17s03-ussc.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  7. ^ Cindy Chan (2009-04-29). “Female Ski Jumpers Seem Olympic Inclusion”. Epoch Times. http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/16139/. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  8. http://www.ctvolympics.ca/ski-jumping/news/newsid=12739.html#no+female+flight+2010?cid=rssctv. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  9. ^ CBC News (2009-07-10). “Female ski jumpers lose Olympic battle”. CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/07/10/bc-olympic-women-ski-jump-decision.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  10. ^ Tatianan Siegel, “Virginia Madsen to defy ‘Gravity'”, Variety, Apr. 8, 2009
  11. ^ Olympic.org
  12. ^ “Prvič v zgodovini smučarskih skokov – tekma mešanih parov”, Športna zveza Ljubljane, June 16, 2012
  13. ^ ski jumping hills in Mostec skisprungschanzen.com
  14. video, tvslo.si (slovene), June 16, 2012
  15. ^ For Ski Jumpers, a Sliding Scale of Weight, Distance and Health
  16. dead link]
  17. ^ Vom Olymp zu den Fischen auf faz.net
  18. ^ Australian Olympic Committee commenting the Olympic Winter Games of Nagano 1998
  19. ^ FIS result list 8 February 2003, Rank 1 Hannawald, Rank 6 Miyahira (PDF-File, 379 kB)
  20. ^ FIS result list 6 January 2009, Rank 1 Loitzl (PDF-File, 273 kB)
  21. ^ “Neerpeltenaar kroont zich tot Belgisch kampioen schansspringen” (in Dutch). Het Belang van Limburg. 2012-06-13. http://www.hbvl.be/limburg/neerpelt/neerpeltenaar-kroont-zich-tot-belgisch-kampioen-schansspringen-video.aspx. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  22. ^ Broekx, Jesse (2012-06-11). “Tom Waes niet langer beste Belgische schansspringer” (in Dutch). sport.be.msn.com. http://sport.be.msn.com/nl/andere/article.html?Article_ID=589694. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  23. ^ Van Horne, Kizzy (2012-06-14). “Twintiger snoept Belgisch record schansspringen van Tom Waes af” (in Dutch). Het Nieuwsblad. http://www.nieuwsblad.be/article/detail.aspx?articleid=DMF20120614_00183842. Retrieved 14 June 2012.

[edit] External links



This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Ski Jumping, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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